(also called indirect costs) these do not vary with the amount of production (output) and include rent; insurance; interest. They have to be paid even if production does not take place.
the additional costs to society of external factors such as the pollution of the air; ground and...
the quantity of a type of product that consumers buy at a certain price at a certain time.
the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem; often used as a measure of the health of...
the total amount that households have available to spend after paying taxes.